Medical Director, Neuroimmunology and Demyelinating Disorders Program
Attending Physician, Division of Neurology

Assistant Professor of Neurology, Keck School of Medicine of USC
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Dr. Santoro is a pediatric neurologist with special training in inflammatory and demyelinating disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system. His clinical research is in Down syndrome and the association between autoimmunity and the development of cerebrovascular disease.

Clinical Interests

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM)
Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis
Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders
MOG Antibody Syndrome
Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis
Optic Neuritis
Transverse Myelitis
Neurologic Disorders Associated With Down Syndrome
Bickerstaff's Brainstem Encephalitis and GQ1b Antibody Mediated Disorders
Autoimmune Encephalitis
Hashimoto's Encephalitis (Steroid Responsive Encephalitis with Associated Autoimmune Thyroiditis)
Down Syndrome Regression Disorder


Medical School: 

Tulane University School of Medicine


Stanford University School of Medicine: Pediatrics


Stanford University School of Medicine: Pediatrics & Child Neurology


Harvard Medical School: Pediatric MS and Demyelinating Disorders



American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology: Neurology with Special Qualifications in Child Neurology

Professional Memberships: 

American Medical Association 
American Academy of Neurology 
Child Neurology Society


Alpha Omega Alpha (Stanford University, 2018) 
Young Alumni Leadership Award (Tulane University, 2018) 
Enhanced Leadership Scholarship (AAN, 2018)


Santoro JD, Forkert ND, Yang QZ, Pavitt S, MacEachern SJ, Mosely M, Yeom KW. Brain diffusion abnormalities in children with tension and migraine type headaches. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2018 May; 39(5):935-941. PMID: 29545251.

Santoro JD, Lee S, Mlynash M, Nguyen T, Lazzareschi DV, Kraler L, Mayne EW, Steinberg GK. Blood Pressure Elevation and Risk of Moyamoya Syndrome in Patients with Trisomy 21. Pediatrics. 2018 Oct; 142(3), Pii:e20180840. PMID: 30190347.

Santoro JD, Hemond CC. Lower CSF HHV6 viral load in children may predict likelihood of seizure in post-transplant acute limbic encephalitis. Transpl Infect Dis. 2019 Feb;21(1):e13003. PMID: 30256500.

Santoro JD, Chitnis T. Diagnostic Considerations in Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis and the Interface with anti-MOG Antibody. Neuropediatrics. 2019 Oct; 50(5):273-279. PMID: 31340401.

Santoro JD, Lee S, Mlynash M, Mayne EW, Rafii MS, Skotko BG. Diminished Blood pressure Profiles in Children with Down Syndrome. Hypertension. 2020 Mar;75(3):819-825. PMID: 31928114.

Rosso M*, Fremion E, Santoro SL, Oreskovic NM, Skotko BG, Santoro JD. Down Syndrome Disintegrative Disorder: An Emerging Clinical Regression Syndrome. Pediatrics. 2020 Jun; 145(6):e20192939. PMID: 32471843.

Santoro JD, Waltz M, Aaen G, Belman A, Benson L, Gorman MP, et al. Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score in a Large U.S. Cohort. Neurology. 2020 Sep 29;95(13):e1844-e1853. PMID: 32690790.

Santoro JD, Paulsen KC. Biotinidase deficiency as a mimic of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: an increasingly recognized entity in young adults. JAMA Neurol. 2020 Oct 5;e203558. PMID: 33016994.

Santoro JD, Hurubise B, Del Rosario J, Pagarkar D, Wiegand SE, Su E, Ahsan N. Underutilization of contraception in young females with demyelinating disorders. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2021 Mar 9;51:102881 [Online ahead of print]. PMID: 33730609.

Research Interests: 

Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis
MOG Antibody Spectrum Disorders
Neurologic Disorders Associated With Down Syndrome

4650 Sunset Blvd
MS #82
Los Angeles, CA 90027
Phone: 323-361-2471Office