Medical Director, Neuroimmunology and Demyelinating Disorders
Attending Physician
Assistant Professor of Neurology, Keck School of Medicine of USC
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Dr. Santoro is a pediatric neurologist with special training in inflammatory and demyelinating disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system.

Clinical Interests

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) 
Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis 
Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders 
MOG Antibody Syndrome 
Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis 
Optic Neuritis 
Transverse Myelitis 
Neurologic Disorders Associated With Down Syndrome 
Bickerstaff's Brainstem Encephalitis and GQ1b Antibody Mediated Disorders 
Autoimmune Encephalitis 
Hashimoto's Encephalitis (Steroid Responsive Encephalitis with Associated Autoimmune Thyroiditis)


Medical School: 

Tulane University School of Medicine


Stanford University School of Medicine: Pediatrics


Stanford University School of Medicine: Pediatrics & Child Neurology


Harvard Medical School: Pediatric MS and Demyelinating Disorders



American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology: Neurology with Special Qualifications in Child Neurology

Professional Memberships: 

American Medical Association 
American Academy of Neurology 
Child Neurology Society


Alpha Omega Alpha (Stanford University, 2018) 
Young Alumni Leadership Award (Tulane University, 2018) 
Enhanced Leadership Scholarship (AAN, 2018)


Santoro JD, Filippakis A, Chitnis T. Ketamine Use in Refractory Status Epilepticus Associated with anti-NMDA Receptor Antibody Encephalitis. Epilepsy Behav Rep. 2019 Jun 23;12:100326

Santoro JD, Chitnis T. Diagnostic Considerations in Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis and the Interface with anti-MOG Antibody. Neuropediatrics. 2019 Jul 24 [Epub ahead of print]

Santoro JD, Whitgob EE, Huffman LC. Cluster randomized controlled trial of disability education module during pediatrics clerkship. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2019 May 21:9922819850475. [Epub ahead of print] 

Santoro JD. Long-term sequelae of pediatric Bickerstaff’s brainstem encephalitis includes autonomic dysfunction and sleep dysregulation. J Child Neurol. 2019 Jan 3:883073818820488 [Epub ahead of print] 

Messacar K, Sillau S, Hopkins S, Otten C, Wilson-Murphy M, Wong B, Santoro JD, Treister A, Tokhie H, Torres A, Zabrocki L, Glanternik J, Hurst A, Martin J, Schreiner T, Makhani N, DeBiasi R, Kruer M, Tremoulet A, Van Haren K, Desai J, Benson L, Gorman M, Abzug MJ, Tyler KL, Dominguez SR. Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of fluoxetine as an antiviral for acute flaccid myelitis. Neurology. 2019 Apr 30;92(18):e2118-e2126. 

Santoro JD, Hemond CC. Lower CSF HHV6 viral load in children may predict likelihood of seizure in post-transplant acute limbic encephalitis. Transpl Infect Dis. 2019 Feb;21(1):e13003, Epub 2019 Oct 15 

Santoro JD, Lee S, Mlynash M, Nguyen T, Lazzareschi DV, Kraler L, Mayne EW, Steinberg GK. Subclinical hypertension predicts symptomatic moymoya disease in patients with trisomy 21. Pediatrics. 2018 Oct; 142(3), Pii:e20180840 

Santoro JD, Sandoval A, Ruzhnikov M, Brimble E, Chadwick W, Wusthoff CJ. Use of EMR templates reduces medical errors in patients with infantile spasms. Health Inf Manag. 2018 Aug 19:1833358318794501. 

Santoro JD, Forkert ND, Yang QZ, Pavitt S, MacEachern SJ, Mosely M, Yeom KW. Brain diffusion abnormalities in children with tension and migraine type headaches. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2018 May; 39(5):935-941 

Santoro JD, Lazzareschi DV, Campen CJ, Van Haren K. Bickerstaff’s brainstem encephalitis in the pediatric population: neurodiagnostic and therapeutic challenges. J Neurol. 2018 Jan; 265(1):141-150

Research Interests: 

Pediatric Demyelinating Disorders 
MOG Antibody Spectrum Disorders 
Neurologic Disorders Associated With Down Syndrome

4650 Sunset Blvd
MS #82
Los Angeles, CA 90027
Phone: 323-361-2471Office