Endocrinology Fellowship

About the Fellowship

The fellowship is a three-year program intended to prepare fellows for a career in academic pediatric endocrinology. The program combines clinical endocrinology and diabetes care with excellent opportunities for clinical and laboratory-based research within the division and through close liaisons within the Department of Pediatrics at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, The Saban Research Institute and the Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California. The program has a rich history of excellence in endocrinology and diabetes extending back almost 30 years. 

Learn More About the Program

The Center for Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism has been named one of the top seven programs in the country by U.S. News and World Report for the last five years in a row. With nine full-time and six part-time attending physicians, as well as seven diabetes nurse educators, the fellows are exposed to a wealth of expertise in various aspects of pediatric endocrinology. In addition, fellows have the opportunity to interact with other highly regarded and productive divisions in the hospital that care for patients with diverse pediatric issues. It is the intent of the program that fellows will be well-trained in diagnosis and management of endocrine disorders of childhood, be able to teach and lecture on endocrinology and diabetes, and be familiar with the methodology and techniques of routine endocrine laboratory studies. Another critical component of the fellowship is to be able to design and carry out clinical and laboratory investigations.

  • Inpatient Service
  • Outpatient Service
  • Research
  • Our Research Projects
  • Publications
  • Call
  • Other Educational Experiences

The fellow will spend 12 months during the fellowship as the "on-service fellow." The service time is generally allocated as follows:

  • six months in year one
  • four months in year two
  • two months in year three

On-service fellows will manage the inpatient endocrine and diabetes service, under the supervision of attending faculty. They will round with pediatric residents and see all consults and primary endocrine and diabetes patients. On-service fellows will also see urgent outpatient consultations, and triage urgent patient phone calls.

When off service, fellows will attend two clinics per week including their own continuity clinic. The continuity clinic will carry on through all 3 years of fellowship and will be staffed by a dedicated attending physician. Non-continuity teaching clinics are preceded by a one-hour conference with the attending, which is spent discussing cases to be seen and endocrine/diabetes topics of interest. Incorporated in teaching clinic schedule are our multidisciplinary clinics including Comprehensive CAH and hyperandrogenism clinic, Turner syndrome clinic, EMPOWER weight management clinic, Type 2 diabetes clinic, Neuro-oncology Clinic, and Thyroid nodule clinic.  In addition, fellows have the opportunity to do rotations in other CHLA divisions, including but not limited to Lipid clinic (Cardiology), Transgender clinic (Adolescent Medicine) and Genetics clinic.

Fellows engage in research throughout their training (for a total of 22 months while "off service"). In their first year, fellows will choose their research project and mentors, in coordination with the fellowship director. They will lay the groundwork for their project(s), and choose their Scholarship Oversight Committee, which will monitor their scholarly progress throughout their fellowship. During the second and third years, fellows will focus primarily on their research project(s). Clinical research projects are expected to be hypothesis-driven and rigorously performed. Bench research should involve a discrete project in which the fellow does the majority of the hands-on work. Both types of research should lead to one or more first-authored publications for the fellow. Fellows are encouraged to attend and present their research at institutional, local, and national scientific meetings, and the division provides clinical coverage and financial support for these activities. Fellows are required to apply for at least one grant during their fellowship.

Endocrinology fellows have the opportunity to participate in a wide variety of clinical and laboratory-based research projects. Fellows develop their own projects, building on one of a number of ongoing projects within the division, or with one of several collaborators in other divisions at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles or in the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California.

Below is a list of recent fellow research projects at CHLA:

Pituitary, Adrenal, Puberty, and other Endocrine Research

  • Adrenomedullary function in newborns with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
  • Evaluation of Abdominal Obesity in youth with CAH
  • The role of lymphocytes in the accumulation and activation of adipose tissue macrophages
  • Effect of GnRH agonists on height in Transgender patients
  • Pubertal disorders in patients with optic nerve hypoplasia
  • Endocrinopathies and vision outcomes in patients with optic nerve hypoplasia
  • Serum prolactin concentrations in relation to hypopituitarism and obesity in children with optic nerve hypoplasia
  • Early Detection of Central Hypothyroidism and its Impact on Vision in Children with Optic Nerve Hypoplasia
  • Use of dynamic testing to identify adrenal insufficiency in patients with thalassemia major
  • Pharmacodynamics of c-type natriuritic peptide during growth hormone treatment

Diabetes and Obesity Research

  • Retrospective Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGM) use in type 1 diabetes patients transitioning to pump therapy
  • Food choice behavior in youth
  • The use of CGM in poorly controlled Type 1 Diabetes patients on multiple daily injections
  • The effects of vitamin D supplementation on glycemic control and pro-inflammatory markers involved in microvascular complications in adolescents with type 1 diabetes
  • Metabolic syndrome and diabetes in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia
  • Use of exenetide, a GLP-1 agonist, for children with Prader Willi Syndrome


Ferris JA, Geffner ME. Are aromatase inhibitors in boys with predicted whort stature and/or Rapidly advancing bone age effective and safe? J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2017; 30(3):311-317.


Serrano-Gonzalez M, Shay S, Austin J, Maceri D, Pitukcheewanont P. A germ-line mutation of CDC73/HRPT2 (70 G>T) in an adolescent female with parathyroid carcinoma: first case report and review of the literature. J Ped Endocrinol Metab. 2016;29(9):1005-12.

Ryabets-Lienhard A, Stewart C, Borchert M, Geffner ME. The optic nerve hypoplasia spectrum: review of the literature and clinical guidelines. Adv Pediatr. 2016 Aug;63(1):127-46.

Stewart C, Garcia-Filion P, Fink C, Ryabets-Lienhard A, Geffner ME, Borchert M. Efficacy of growth hormone replacement on anthropometric outcomes, obesity, and lipids in children with optic nerve hypoplasia and growth hormone deficiency. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol. 2016;2016:5.

Kim MS1, Dao-Tran A, Davidowitz E, Tseng T, Gilsanz V, Ryabets-Lienhard A, Nguyen E, Geffner ME. Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Is Associated with Increased Androgens in Adolescents and Young Adults with Classical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. Horm Res Paediatr. 2016;85(4):242-9.

Shih EM, Mittelman S, Pitukcheewanont P, Azen CG, Monzavi R. Effects of vitamin D repletion on glycemic control and inflammatory cytokines in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2016;17:36-43.

Olney RC, Salehi P, Prickett TC, Lima JJ, Espiner EA, Sikes KM, Geffner ME. Dynamic Response of C-Type Natriuretic Peptide and its Aminoterminal Propeptide (NTproCNP) to Growth Hormone Treatment in Children with Short Stature. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2016 May 14.

Salehi P, Hsu I, Azen CG, Mittelman SD, Geffner ME, Jeandron D. Effects of exenatide on weight and appetite in overweight adolescents and young adults with Prader-Willi syndrome. Pediatr Obes. 2016 Apr 13.


Lin MH, Numbenjapon N, Germain-Lee EL, Pitukcheewanont P. Progressive osseous heteroplasia, as an isolated entity or overlapping with Albright hereditary osteodystrophy. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Jul;28(7-8):911-8.

Kim MS, Ryabets-Lienhard A, Dao-Tran A, Mittelman SD, Gilsanz V, Schrager SM, Geffner ME. Increased Abdominal Adiposity in Adolescents and Young Adults With Classical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Aug;100(8):E1153-9. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-4033. Epub 2015 Jun 10.

Lin MH, Wood JR, Mittelman SD, Freyer DR. Institutional adherence to cardiovascular risk factor screening guidelines for young survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2015 May;37(4):e253-7.


Shih EM, Mittelman S, Pitukcheewanont P, Azen CG, Monzavi R. Effects of vitamin D repletion on glycemic control and inflammatory cytokines in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2014 Dec 18.

Shih EM, Graham JM Jr. Review of genetic and environmental factors leading to hypospadias.Eur J Med Genet. 2014 Aug;57(8):453-63.

Ryabets-Lienhard A, Kim MS, Bali B, Lane CJ, Park AH, Hall S, Geffner ME. Decreased Adrenomedullary Function in Infants with Classical Adrenal Hyperplasia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Aug;99(8):E1597-601


Lin MH, Connor CG, Ruedy KJ, Beck RW, Kollman C, Buckingham B, Redondo MJ, Schatz D, Haro H, Lee JM, Tamborlane WV, Wood JR, For The Pediatric Diabetes Consortium. Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Treatment Center Are Associated with Insulin Pump Therapy in Youth in the First Year Following Diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2013 Nov;15(11):929-34

Huang K, Malloy P, Feldman D, Pitukcheewanont P. Enteral Calcium Infusion Used Successfully as Treatment for a Patient with Hereditary Vitamin D Resistant Rickets (HVDRR) without Alopecia: A Novel Mutation Gene. Gene. 2013;512(2):554-9

Salehi P, Koh CJ, Pitukcheewanont P, Trinh L, Daniels M, Geffner M. Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome: 8 new cases in Southern California and a review of the literature. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2012 Dec-2013 Jan;10(2):227-33.


Kim MS, Ryabets-Lienhard A, Geffner ME. Management of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in childhood. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2012 Dec;19(6):483-8.

Lin MH, Pitukcheewanont P. Mucolipidosis type II (I-cell disease) masquerading as rickets: two case reports and review of literature. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2012;25(1-2):191-5.

Lin MH, Pitukcheewanont, P. Sertoli cell tumor and intratubular germ cell neoplasia located in separate gonads in an adolescent patient with complete androgen  insensitivity: A case report and review of literature. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2012;25(5-6):547-51

Lin MH, Punyasavatsut N, Pitukcheewanont P. Bone health in children and adolescents. Current Trends in Endocrinology 6:29-38, 2012 (Review)

Vedin AM, Garcia-Filion P, Fink C, Borchert M, Geffner ME. Serum prolactin concentrations in relation to hypopituitarism and obesity in children with optic nerve hypoplasia. Horm Res Paediatr. 2012;77(5):277-80. Epub 2012 May 10.

Fink C, Vedin AM, Garcia-Filion P, Ma NS, Geffner ME, Borchert M. Early Detection of Central Hypothyroidism and its Impact on Vision in Children with Optic Nerve Hypoplasia, Journal of AAPOS 2012 Oct;16(5):418-23.

Reh CS, Olney RC, Azen C, Prickett TC, Espiner EA, Geffner ME. Plasma C-type natriuretic peptide forms and thyroid status in prepubertal children with acquired thyroid disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012 Feb;76(2):228-35.


Vedin AM, Karlsson H, Fink C, Borchert M, Geffner ME. Presenting features and long-term effects of growth hormone treatment of children with optic nerve hypoplasia/septo-optic dysplasia. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol. 2011 Nov 15;2011(1):17.

Pitukcheewanont P, Bali B, Somanunt S, Reiff A. Scleroderma-like skin changes not involving the hand in a prepubertal male with type I diabetes mellitus: A case report. Dermatoendocrinol. 2011 Oct;3(4):230-2.

Reh CS, Hendy GN, Cole DE, Jeandron DD. Neonatal hyperparathyroidism with a heterozygous calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) R185Q mutation: clinical benefit from cinacalcet. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Apr;96(4):E707-12. Epub 2011 Feb 2

Reh CS, Mittelman SD, Wee CP, Shah AC, Kaufman FR, Wood JR. A longitudinal assessment of lipids in youth with type 1 diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2011 Jun;12(4 Pt 2):365-71.

Venkatramani R, Ma NS, Pitukcheewanont P, Malogolowkin MH, Mascarenhas L. Gorham's disease and diffuse lymphangiomatosis in children and adolescents. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011 Apr;56(4):667-70.

Ahmad T, Geffner M, Parks J, Brown M, Fisher L, Costin G. Short stature and metabolic abnormalities in two sisters with a 7.6-kb GH1 gene deletion. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2011 Feb;21(1):37-43.


Reh CS, Geffner ME.  Somatotropin in the treatment of growth hormone deficiency and Turner syndrome in pediatric patients:  a review.  Clin Pharmacol Adv Appl  2010;2:111-122.

Ma NS, Shah AJ, Geffner ME, Kapoor N. IGF-I stimulates in vivo thymopoiesis after stem cell transplantation in a child with Omenn syndrome.  J Clin Immunol  2010;30:114-120.

Ma NS, Fink C, Geffner ME, Borchert MD.  Evolving central hypothyroidism in children with optic nerve hypoplasia.  J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab  2010;23:53-58.

Mittelman SD, Klier K, Braun S, Azen C, Geffner ME, Buchanan TA.  Obese adolescents show impaired meal responses of the appetite-regulating hormones ghrelin and PYY. Obesity  2010; 18:918-925.


Ma N, Malloy JP, Pitukcheewanont P, Dreimane D, Geffner ME, Feldman D.  Hereditary vitamin D resistant rickets: Identification of a novel splice site mutation in the vitamin d receptor gene and successful treatment with oral calcium therapy.   Bone  2009;45:743-746.

Marathe C, Bradley MN, Hong C, Chao L, Wilpitz D, Salazar J, Tontonoz P. Preserved glucose tolerance in high fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice transplanted with PPARgamma -/-, PPARdelta -/-, PPARgamma delta -/- or LXRalpha beta -/- bone marrow. J Lipid Res. 2009, 50(2):214-24.

Chao LC, Wroblewski K, Zhang Z, Pei L, Vergnes L, Ilkayeva OR, Ding S, Reue K, Watt MJ, Newgard CB, Pilch PF, Hevener AL, Tontonoz P.  Insulin resistance and altered systemic glucose metabolism in mice lacking Nur77. Diabetes 2009;58:2788-2796.


Ma NS, Geffner ME.  Gynecomastia in prepubertal and pubertal boys.  Curr Opin Pediatr  2008;20:465-470.

Chao LC, Bensinger SJ, Villanueva CJ, Wroblewski K, Tontonoz P. Inhibition of adipocyte differentiation by Nur77, Nurr1 and Nor1. Mol Endocrinol 2008, 22(12):2596-608.

Ahmad T, Borchert MD, Geffner ME.  Optic nerve hypoplasia and hypopituitarism. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev  2008;5:789-796.

Karantza M, Mittelman SD, Dorey F, Samie S, Kaiserman K, Halvorson M, Kaufman FR. Relationship of highly-sensitive c-reactive protein and lipid levels in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pediatr Diab 2008;9:122-126.


Chao LC, Zhang Z, Pei L, Saito T, Tontonoz P, Pilch PF. Nur77 coordinately regulates expression of genes linked to glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Mol Endocrinol. 2007, 21(9): 2152-63.  


May JA, Krieger MD, Bowen I, Geffner ME.  Craniopharyngioma in childhood. Adv Pediatr  2006;53:183-209

Ahmad T, Garcia-Filion P, Borchert M, Kaufman FR, Burkett L, Geffner ME.  Endocrinological and auxological abnormalities in young children with optic nerve hypoplasia:  a prospective study. J Pediatr  2006;148:78-84.

Mittelman SD, Hendy GA, Fefferman RA, Canaff L, Mosesova , Cole DEC, Burkett L, Geffner ME. A hypocalcemic child with a novel activating mutation of the calcium-sensing receptor gene: Successful treatment with recombinant human parathyroid hormone.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab  2006;91:2474-2479.

Monzavi R, Dreimane D, Geffner M, Braun S, Conrad B, Klier M, and Kaufman K.  Improvement in Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance in Overweight Youth Treated with Lifestyle Intervention. Pediatrics 2006 Jun;117(6):e1111-8.


Monzavi R, Fefferman RA, Pitukcheewanont P. Prader-Willi syndrome and mosaic Turner syndrome.  Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism 2005, 18(7):711-7.


Monzavi R, Kelly DF, Geffner ME.  Rathke's Cleft Cyst in Two Girls with Precocious Puberty. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism 2004, 17(3):781-787.

Fellows cover the service on weeknights and weekends all 3 years, in rotation with one another, resulting in being “on call” weeknights and weekends for one in every five or six nights/weekends. Call is primarily from home, though weekend call involves morning inpatient rounds, and fellows are expected to be available to come into the hospital for rare emergencies.

Fellows have access to a variety of educational experiences during their fellowship, including, but not limited to:

  • Thursday morning divisional educational conference (invited speakers, case presentations, journal club)
  • Endocrine brown bag lecture series (monthly)
  • Pediatric endocrinology board review (monthly)
  • Research meetings with Fellowship Director (monthly)
  • Fellows’ core curriculum (covers general education, research and professionalism for all Children’s Hospital Los Angeles subspecialty fellows)
  • Responsible conduct of research
  • Bone conference
  • Endo-Urology, Endo-Radiology, and Endo-Genetics joint conferences
  • Clinical & Translational Research Study Design Course (8 weeks long)
  • Divisional research updates
  • Diabetes camp
  • Pediatric grand rounds
  • The Saban Research Institute chalk talks
  • Patient education conference participation, e.g., the annual meeting of the MAGIC Foundation
  • Access to graduate courses and masters programs at USC with tuition remission
  • "Pre-tending" Week

How to Apply

The CHLA Pediatric Endocrinology Fellowship Program is a part of the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP). Our program takes applications via the Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS). If you are interested in applying for our fellowship program, you will need to apply through ERAS application process.

  • Program Fast Facts
  • Where Do Fellows Go When They Graduate?
  • AGME Accredited: Yes
  • Fellows per year: 2
  • Application Deadline: October
  • Duration: 3 years
  • Postgraduate Training Required: 3 years
  • U.S. Citizenship requirement: accept citizenship, green card, and J1 Visa
  • Salary Minimums
    PGY4: $63,344 minimum
    PGY5: $65,018 minimum
    PGY6: $67,225 minimum
    PGY7: $69,506 minimum
    PGY8+:Compensation will be at the discretion of each division
  • Benefits Include: Health and dental insurance, 14 days paid vacation + 6 personal days, and yearly educational stipend

Fellows who have graduated our program in the last 10 years obtained faculty positions at:

  • Boston Children’s Hospital
  • Children’s Hospital Los Angeles
  • Children’s Hospital Oakland
  • Children’s Hospital Orange County
  • Kaiser, Santa Clara
  • Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles
  • Seattle Children's Hospital
  • Stanford University
  • University of Athens
  • University of Virginia
  • White Memorial Medical Center, Los Angeles


The Children’s Hospital Los Angeles Endocrinology Fellowship is supported in part by generous donations from Ms Monica Lester, Mr Paul Lester, Mrs and Mr Sherry and Kenneth Corday, The Francine Kaufman Endowment, The Marcled Foundation, the Hurlbut-Johnson Charitable Trust, and grant function from Genentech.